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    Jaguar's Winning Sports Car

    Jaguar Heritage Magazine Issue Number 5

    With the success of the XK120 in sporting events, Jaguar developed the model into a true competition car.

    Three Jaguar XK 120s were carefully prepared by the factory and entered into the 24hour race at Le Mans in 1950. It was a reasonable success, one car held on to third place until the clutch expired just three hours from the finish. The two surviving cars finished twelfth and fifteenth.

    William Lyons and William Heynes were delighted with the performance of the XK120 at Le Mans, but both men realised that it was never going to be competitive against pure sports-racing cars. They had to develop the XK120 chassis and the XK engine purely for competition work and return to Le Mans in 1951. However Lyons was not one to spend money unnecessarily and had to be convinced about the value of of a car dedicated for Le Mans the following year. Given the suffix C for competition, work began in secret on a lightweight XK120. Lyons himself designed a body that he thought would be ideal to clothe the XK10 chassis. This was made in model form but was not built. It shows that Lyons was not always right, but he knew that the correct the design was important, so he fully backed the version from Bill Haynes and Malcolm Sayer. However Lyons did ask for three lightweight XK120 bodies of standard shape to be made, in case the C-type was not ready.

    Work Begins

    Malcolm Sayer (1916-1970) had studied automobile engineering at university, but had joined the Bristol Aeroplane Company as an aero-engineer, the pay and prospects were better and here he was immersed in the world of aerodynamics. Following World War Two he left Bristol and worked for a time in Iraq before returning to Britain and applying for a job at Jaguar. He joined the firm in 1950.
    Sayer´s background in motor and aero engineering was of great importance. He understood aerodynamics and their application to other branches of science. One of the first things he did at Jaguar was to install a wind tunnel, the first at Jaguar and start work on developing the concept XK120 C.

    Sayer was tasked with designing a body that was aerodynamically more efficient than the XK120 but that could still be identified as being related to the Jaguar XK120. To save weight Haynes discarded the heavy XK120 chassis and adopted a multi-tubular space frame unit; Bob Knight, under Heynes´ direction, carried out the work. The foundation of the chassis was a drilled channel-section framework, but the strength lay in a triangulated box of tubes in the middle, with sub-frames carrying the engine and suspension in the front. The critical centre section, which contained the driver and passenger seats, was braced laterally, longitudinally and vertically. Sayer´s background in aviation can be detected here. Heynes retained the XK120 front suspension but the rear suspension was modified considerably. The half-elliptical springs were replaced by a single transversely mounted torsion bar, connected to the live rear axle by trailing arms, while torque reaction members prevented lateral movement. Rack and pinion steering was introduced, another first for Jaguar, in place of the recirculating ball type.

    “We had about seven months,” recalled Heynes in later years, “to design, make and prove a car from a clean sheet of paper and to complete three cars for the race.” He went on to add, “We worked on drawings and models; we built up frames and bodies in wood and made use of broomsticks in the mock ups of the tubular frames.” At that time Jaguar did not have a dedicated competition department, so the design engineering and the experimental teams carried out the main tasks. The work on the XK120C was fitted into the normal working day alongside other everyday business.
    “Everyone involved would work extra hours and week-ends to get the work done,” recalled Heynes.

    Harry Westlake started with the standard 3.4 litre XK six-cylinder engine, retaining the wet-sump lubrication and the twin SU carburettors, but modified both the inlet port and the exhaust system. He also introduced high-lift camshafts and a lighter flywheel to boost the engine output to 210 bhp at 5,800 rpm (the XK120 engine offered 180 bhp at 5,300 rpm). The four-speed gearbox had ratios of 3.31, 4.51, 6.59 and 11.2:1 though closer ratios, including 3.99:1 third gear were later made available.

    Testing Times

    Small wooden models were made of the Sayer design and tested in the wind tunnel. As data was gathered the body was subtly altered and what emerged was a beautiful sleek purposeful sportscar. Although officially known as the XK120 ‘C’ the car was by now being referred to as the ‘Type - C’ and soon became the ‘C-type’ in the press. Abbey Panels, which had made the aluminium XK120 bodies, made the body panels for the C-type. The bonnet especially was magnificently sculptured. It was not simply a bonnet; it was an integral part of Sayer’s aerodynamically structured design. The early car had large side louvres which were later changed and it did not have any louvres on the top of the bonnet. That Jaguar had a potential winner in the making was only revealed to the public when a photograph and a description were published in The Motor for June 20th, 1951. Two days later more details appeared in The Autocar. So complete was the secrecy that nothing had leaked out about the C-type before this announcement. Le Mans was just a week away.

    Testing of the first C-type, chassis number XKC001, was carried out at Silverstone and the MIRA test track. All the drivers, Whitehead, Walker, Moss, Fairman and Johnson were able to test-drive the cars. Only Clemente Biondetti, who was to share the driving with Leslie Johnson, was unable attend the testing. The three cars were completed in time and made ready for the drive to France.
    ‘Lofty’ England, Phil Weaver and Jack Emerson accompanied by tow mechanics, John Lea and Joe Sutton, drove the cars to Le Mans. A Bedford 13cwt lorry carrying spares escorted them. England said of the drive “We thought people should see that our cars were capable of being driven on the road, and if anything was going to fall off, then by the time you have driven across France on their bumpy roads, it would fall off. Much better to know before you start! Besides driving there would save money.”

    Heynes arrived in a Jaguar Mark VII for the practice session and Lyons arrived after the start of the race by air in the Dunlop aircraft. Jaguar had arrived to do battle in one of the most testing of races with an untried car.

    They were certainly the most modern looking of the 1951 entrants, but were not regarded as a threat. Aston Martin had entered five cars; there were six 4.5 litre Talbots and Ferraris also on the grid. Briggs Cunningham had brought two of his big 5.4 litre Cunninghams to Le Mans; so what could the untried 3.4 litre XK- powered C-type accomplish?

    It was only during practice that the C-type threat could be measured. Peter Walker, driving XKC 003 averaged 104mph (167.4km/hr) in the dark at a mid-week session. However, there were problems. C-type XKC 001 suffered engine trouble and had to be rebuilt by Jack Lea; the Marchal headlamps proved inadequate and more powerful examples were ordered. This required the manufacture of the new backshells to accommodate them. Lofty, Heynes and Weaver set about making repairs to Moss´s C-type when he struck the rear end of Morris-Goodall´s Aston Martin during the Thursday night practice session.

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    Le Mans

    At four o´clock on Saturday June 23rd, 1951, the race began at a wet and overcast Le Mans. Stirling Moss, Peter Walker and Clemente Biondetti sprinted to their cars and were away. By the end of the second lap Moss was second to one of the big Talbots driven by Gonzalez from Argentina. After three more laps Moss was in first place with Biondetti moving into third position. After five more hours Moss was still leading with the Walker/Whitehead and Biondetti/Johnson C-types in second and third places. Moss also shattered the lap record at 105.2mph (169.3km/hr) taking 4 minutes 46.8 seconds. All looked good for the Jaguar team and then Biondetti noticed a drop in oil pressure. He stopped at the pits and oil was found in the sump but none was being circulated to the engine. Nothing could be done, as the rules at the time only allowed the use of tools and parts carried in the car. So the C-type had to be retired. Moss/Fairman and Walker/Whitehead were still in first and second places.

    The cars appeared to be going well, but then on lap 94 Moss suffered the same fate as Biondetti and ground to a halt with a broken con-rod after Arnage corner. It appeared that a weld on the main oil feed pipe had broken due to engine vibration. Only one C-type was still in the race and took the lead but it could still go the way of the other cars. Peter Whitehead and Peter Walker were instructed to keep engine revs down and drive as smoothly as ossible. This they did and the Jaguar performed faultlessly during the following laps. Peter Whitehead drove the final phase and took Jaguar XKC 003, race number 20, to victory. The car was 45 minutes and 77 miles (124kms) ahead of the Talbot that came in second. The Jaguar C-type had covered 2,243.886 miles (3,611.085 km) at an average speed of 93.495mph (150.461km/hr).

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    Before the win at Le Mans Jaguar was a small, relatively unknown manufacturer. After the win the name was known worldwide. It was publicity that simply could not be bought. Jaguar sales increased substantially as a result. As Lofty commented a few years later. “As soon as we won Le Mans people knew what a Jaguar was and the name went forward very, very quickly.”

    Building on the success at Le Mans, Jaguar entered the C-type in other events that year. At the Tourist Trophy race at Dundrod in Ireland the three cars were entered. The copper oil delivery pipes that had been blamed for the troubles at Le Mans were replaced with steel ones. Stirling Moss, driving XKC 002, took first place at an average speed of 82.55mph (132.847km/hr). Second place was taken by Leslie Johnson and Tony Rolt took fourth position. The C-types were awarded the Team Prize.

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    Racing History

    XK120 - C-Type Racing History

    Frank Raymond Wilton England was master minding Jaguar´s racing programme in the 1950´s before becoming Assistant Managing Director. After Sir Williams Lyons retired he became Managing Director. He remembers the beginning of the C-type´s racing history.

    Thoughts of making a competition version of the XK120 came to Bill Heynes when he and I went to Le Mans in 1950 to watch the 24 hour race in which three privately owned (if works prepared) XK120 cars competed. The performance of those cars, plus the fact that at that time no one had produced a properly aerodynamic-shaped car and that the opposition lacked any really up-to-date sports racing vehicles, convinced us that using the reliable standard mechanical units in a tubular chassis with an aluminium, aerodynamically shaped body would, if ready for the 1951 race, stand a good chance of being successful.

    It took some months to convince Sir William Lyons that such a car might win but late in the year, and after the MK VII was launched, he agreed.

    Meanwhile Bill Heynes had set out his plans for the design of the car and obtained the services of Malcolm Sayer who came from Bristol Aircraft who would design an aerodynamically shaped body for the new car. The layout of the tubular chassis frame was first done by Bill Haynes as a model using matchsticks!

    AT that time the staff of the engineering design office numbered 2 with a similar number in the experimental department. Walter Hassan, the experimental departmental engineer, had left and gone to Coventry Climax as chief engineer in 1949 and, to help out, I had agreed with Bill Haynes that he could have my London service representative, Phil Weaver, to act temporarily, Phil Weaver, to act temporarily as exp. shop superintendent (a function that Hassan had also covered.) Weaver was still with the engineering department when he retired a few years ago!

    It is interesting to note that since 1945 the staff mentioned had re-introduced the pre-war range of cars (with certain engine modification since the six-cylinder engines were being built by Jaguar instead of Standard), produced a left-hand drive version of those cars. They also designed and introduced a single helical gearbox, designed and built the XK engine, and designed and made a complete new chassis with independent front suspension plus the MK V saloon and DHC which used this and the XK120 roadster with aluminium body, then with steel body, then fixed head and DHC versions, and the completely new MK VII.

    Build and Testing
    The development of Bill Heynes´ design was carried out by Claude Baily, Bob Knight and Tom Jones with Malcolm Sayer doing the body design. The engine development on the test bed was done by Jack Emerson who, in the 1920´s had been an ace motor cycle engine tuner and himself set a number of records at Brooklands as well as riding in the TT races (see the “Guinness Book of Records”!).
    The cars were built under the supervision of Phil Weaver at the Swallow Road premises and first car was tested in early April 1951 by Ron Sutton (Soapy) at that time the exp. dept. tester at MIRA (the Motor Industry Research Association´s facility then called Lindley an old airfield), and having only the perimeter track and one of the runways available for testing. That test showed little wrong apart from loss of oil from the gearbox breather, easily dealt with by having a stack pipe fitted. Soapy then left to join Alvis as their fighting vehicle tester, which having had that job at Daimler before he came to Jaguar; a replacement was not found until 1952 when Dewis joined Jaguar.

    So meanwhile I, who with my having become involved with racing and rallies with the XK120, and had also become the competition manager in addition to running the service organisation, then took on the job of testing the car. This was done at the weekends and in the evenings, with Peter walker and Peter Whitehead coming up to MIRA quite frequently from Leominster and Reading in the evenings to do much of the testing without ever asking for any payment, their only reward a fish and chip meal with me!

    The test programme showed few problems — initially the times speed through the lights on the runway straight, relative to the power output, was not what Bill Heynes expected and was found due to oil build-up on the sump baffle (readily cured) and an oversteer problem overcome by suspension adjustments; but nothing really serious.

    All the drivers who were to drive at Le Mans except Bionette had short driving periods at MIRA or Silverstone where some of the testing was carried out. Nearly all the tests were made with the first and second cars built, the third car being finished only the week before we left for Le Mans.

    Entries and Drivers
    Moss, Walker, Johnson and Whitehead had all driven XK 120s in the UK races and Biondetti in the Targa Florio and Mille Miglia, and their ability was known to us, while Moss said he would like Fairman, who had not previously had a Jaguar connection, to drive with him.

    The cars were entered as XK 120C models as private entries in the names of Moss, Walker and Johnson, this being so that if they were a failure it would not reflect too badly on Jaguar!
    The drivers were not paid anything but got any prize or bonus money they won! Since we did win they were treated quite generously by (Sir) Williams Lyons.

    The Jaguar Le Mans Team
    On Sunday before Le Mans this team set out from Foleshill with Jack Ererson, Phil Weaver and myself driving the three cars, with John Lea and Joe Sutton, the two mechanics, in a 30cwt Bedford van from the transport dept. carrying the spares.

    In those days with no motorways and little traffic we went via Oxford, Henley, Guilford, Reigate to Brighton where we parked the cars overnight at the premises of our Jaguar distributor Moores run by Bill Cannell (later to own with T. Wisdom the ‘C’ type with which Moss won the first race using disc brakes at Reims in 1952). Next morning we left Newhaven on the boat to Dieppe and then drove via Rouen and Alecon to Le Mans. We all stayed in the Hotel de Paris and had the exclusive use of their private garage, although that had no facilities such as a car lift.

    Scrutineering took place at the old Tramway Depot and our beautiful new cars made a great impression. Bill Heynes arrived by road in his own car to join the team for the first night´s practice on the Wednesday. The cars performed well, with Peter Walker quickest and below Rosier´s 1950 lap record, but the Johnson/Biondetti car had a plug electrode fall out which damaged all six cylinders and resulted in a major engine rebuild, carried out by John lea in the Peugeot Garage using the lift etc., but not completed in time for the Thursday night practice.

    At that time Lucas did not have their headlights approved by the French Service des Mines and, since the regulations required the use of lamps obtained from Marchal in the UK who had assured us that they were the up-to-date competition lamps.

    When the drivers reported that they ‘couldn’t see a thing’ I had words with M. Marchal Jun. who said ‘But you do not have the latest lamps’!! These were supplied next morning but to fit them needed new back shells! Phil weaver and I had already reverted to our role as mechanics but Bill Heynes then joined in and made the new backshells.

    At Thursday night´s practice the lamps were found to be much better and there were no mechanical problems with the cars, but Moss had a shunt when someone pranged and an over-enthusiastic marshall put out a red flag. When the car in front of Moss stopped rapidly Moss bumped it in the back, slightly redesigning the front of his ‘C’ type. Thus on the Friday another job where I then showed my ability as a sheet metal worker!

    Friday night all the cars were running and no problems. I should mention that in those days there was no way out from inside of circuit, so if one had trouble you were stuck until practice finished after midnight.

    All the drivers were happy with the cars and the driver pairings worked well, Moss fitted in well with everyone. Biondetti had driven me round the circuit in his car with the roads open and I was able to see how well he understood everything about the car.

    The Race
    After arrival at Le Mans we had been joined by Gerard Leveque the service manager or our distributorship in Paris who not only knew his way around Le Mans and where to get things done, but also acted as our refueller during the race — a great asset since he had been previously connected with motor racing in France and knew the Commissaires, and to have a Frenchman dealing with them and the plombeurs was a real advantage.

    We also had the help of Bob Berry and his sister — he was then at Cambridge studying languages and had written to say that he would be pleased to be of help etc. I had replied: ‘Many thanks but we will be taking our own staff, nevertheless call in and see us at the garage.’ As it happened he proved quite useful and he and his sister did the timekeeping during the race. This led to his deciding he would rather work for Jaguar than continue at Cambridge!

    Race morning was wet when we drove the cars up to the circuit but it was dry for the start. Moss, Walker and Biondetti started the race and by 8pm were running 1, 2, 3.

    The cars, which each held 37 gallons of petrol, were doing over 13mpg and were refuelling every four hours as scheduled. At the first pit stop Johnson asked Biondetti to carry on for another spell which he was happy to do, but later he noticed a sudden loss of oil pressure and nursed the car round to the pits without running a bearing. However, nothing could be done using only the parts and tools carried in the car which at that time was the rule.

    Williams Lyons had planned to be there before the start, coming over in the Dunlop plane with Joe Wright, but bad weather in the UK and over northern France caused great problems and he finally arrived after 10pm, finding two of his cars running 1 and 2. But shortly afterwards, by which time the weather was bad with heavy rain, the same trouble experienced by Biondetti happened to Moss.
    By then we had realised what had caused the loss of oil pressure. With the remaining car well ahead of the second placed car, we briefed the drivers to keep the rpm down under the level at which there was a slight vibration period which had resulted in the breakage of the oil pump to filter bloc delivery pipe at the flange.

    So the race ran out with Peter Walker and Peter Whitehead (who drove the final stint) taking our remaining car, some 45 minutes ahead of the surviving opposition, to a victory, which gave Jaguar tremendous publicity and put the name Jaguar on the map world-wide.

    This was a remarkable achievement in the first race for a car designed, built and developed by so few people in so short a time and at a minimal cost.

    Jaguar Quarterly
    C-type Commemorative Issue: Vol 4 - No.2
    November/December 1991

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    Development of the C-Type

    Suffolk XK120 - C-Type Development

    Roger Williams joined Ipswich Jaguar dealership Botwoods Ltd in 1960 as a Management trainee. Every aspect of running a major dealership and the myriad of internal service units were part of his 5 year training. Highlights included training weeks at Jaguar Cars at Browns Lane and visits to the assembly lines and engine workshops. These helped to instil a love of the Jaguar product.

    Williams left Botwoods in 1965 to run his own business but 30 years later took over a small project making a recreation of the pre-war Jaguar SS100. All of his early skills learned at Botwoods now came back into sharp focus. The car project was purchased and extensively improved before being relaunched as the Suffolk SS100 in 1996.

    Using the skills of the now expanding business and with the assistance of a number of Jaguar enthusiasts Roger decided to create a superior reproduction Jaguar C-type. He was most fortunate in being able to have unlimited access to a number of C-type owners cars and including a completely original C-type 039. Importantly this car had never been damaged.

    New body moulds were made and copies based on the original chassis were created.

    In order to keep the car as true to the concept of the original C-type as possible it was decided to use E-type torsion bar front suspension rather than the more modern and widely used coilovers.
    The rear suspension uses lower trailing arms and top links and a Panhard rod attached to an extensively modified Jaguar MKII live rear axle, narrowed to the correct C-type width.

    The car has Lockheed disc brakes all round and can be fitted with a servo. The steering is rack and pinion with a safety collapsible steering column.

    All Jaguar XK engines can be fitted. 3.4, 3.8 and 4.2 variants are available. These can be modified for performance and fitted with Weber carburettors.

    The Jaguar Short Compact gearbox with overdrive is usually fitted but he car will accept a customer choice of alternative transmissions.

    Mechanically and dynamically the car is designed to perform and feel just as the originals did back in the fifties. The subtle modifications made to the Suffolk C-type improve the car's efficiency without compromising the traditions of the original.

    On the road the car displays fine handling and is certainly capable of achieving speeds of 150mph.

    Every detail of the Suffolk C-type has been carefully crafted to achieve a reproduction that is a faithful copy of the original. Certain subtle modifications have been incorporated to improve driver comfort and convenience.

    All parts to create a Suffolk C-type are available from Woodbridge as a Big Boys Meccano set. See the 'Self Build' and 'Works Built' web pages. A very comprehensive owners Build Manual is supplied and full technical and workshop customer back up is included. All parts supplied are guaranteed for 12 months.

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    We always try to carry a stock of the best Suffolk cars and other classic Jaguar cars. All vehicles come fully works prepared and serviced, and ready for use.

    Over 190 cars have already been built by our customers all over the world. Join those who have had a great time building their dream car at home.

    We always have new cars being manufactured to order and built at our Woodbridge workshops. Come and see us to learn more about our cars.


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    PO Box 100
    IP12 9BA

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